ECT Destroys Lives

When it comes to ECT, the only stories that matter to mainstream media are the “it saved my life!” ones. Those who have claim injury and/or abuse are ignored, discredited and disregarded in any ECT discussion.

“your imagining things, you are mentally ill, after all”

“your a rare case and don’t represent the majority”

“if doctors forced you to have it, you probably needed it”

This blind invalidation needs to stop.

It’s time these accounts are treated as valid.

It’s time people keep asking questions–even when someone throws down a Suzie Success Story.

All personal accounts matter- not just “happy” ones.

Asking honest questions must be allowed and encouraged.

What do doctors really know or not know about ECT?

Why do some people feel helped?

What research has been done and by whom? Is there a conflict of interest? How are these studies conducted? How do doctors define depression and improvement?

Why is only one state keeping track of ECT induced deaths? Shouldn’t all doctors want complete and accurate risk data so their patients can make a truly informed choice?

Why aren’t patients given full informed consent?

Why don’t doctors take patients who claim injury, seriously?

Why don’t they offer before and after testing?

Why haven’t shock machines been tested by the FDA, after the decades ECT has been used? Or when the FDA was recommended to do so in 2011?

If the animal studies conducted in the 50’s and 60’s were so inadequate, why were they never repeated?

Why does some in medical practice who speaks critically of ECT get black-balled?

What role has the media played in promoting ECT? Have they shown journalistic integrity in the process?

How legitimate are the diagnosis labels used to justify ECT?

Why is honest ECT questioning always shut down?

Why does my story count for so little, when it would surely be treated as credible and praised if it were positive?

I could go on and on.

People don’t ask these questions when the discussion is dominated by Suzie Success Stories. Who wants to be the a*&hole that questions a “treatment” that “saved someones life?”

Questions like these are often viewed as offensive.

But why? Shouldn’t we want to know the answers for ALL patients?

Shouldn’t the Suzie’s out there want to know the truth too? That maybe there’s more to their depression and it’s treatment than they were originally told? Maybe, like me, their “treatment resistant depression” is actually treatable?

References

(2007). Retrieved from http://www.breggin.com/ECT/2007Neurop…

Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscience/Hartelius_1952___Animals___Brain_damage__Definitive_.pdf

Andre, L. (1991, September). Electroshock as head injury. Retrieved February 14, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/effects/headinjury…

Andre, L. (2009). Doctors of deception: What they don’t want you to know about shock treatment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Breggin, P. R. (2015, April 8). Simple Truth 10: Electroshock is Brain Trauma [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOtac…

Committee for the Truth is Psychiatry. (n.d.). Electroconvulsive Therapy Causes Permanent Amnesia And Cognitive Deficits, Prominent Researcher Admits « ect.org. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/?p=699

Frank, L. R. (2006). http://psychiatrized.org/LeonardRoyFr…. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.endofshock.com/102C_ECT.PDF

Friedberg, J. (1976). Shock treatment is not good for your brain. San Francisco: Glide Publications.

Further increase in the use of ECT without consent in England | ECT statistics. (2016, January 30). Retrieved March 12, 2016, from https://ectstatistics.wordpress.com/2…

Hickey, P. (2006, November 21). http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/e…. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/e…

Read, J. (2016, February 19). The Curious Case of over 50 Consecutive ECTs in Melbourne – Mad In America. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from http://www.madinamerica.com/2016/02/t…

Ross, C. (2006). http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

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Exciting News 

Dear Aftershock subscribers, thank you for your interest in the important issues surrounding ECT!

I haven’t been writing many posts this last year and its for a good reason: aftershock is moving to a new domain– squeee!

I started this website in 2014 with several important goals:

  •  Create an accessible collection of ECT information so those injured by it can understand what happened to them and for those considering ECT, the information they would never get from their doctor.
  • Provide a platform for survivors to be heard and find validation in others stories
    Now with an official domain and some background in search engine optimization, I hope to reach more people and share the truth this life-destroying “procedure”.
  • Educate people about alternative depression causes and treatments

My hope is with an official domain and background in search engine optimazation (I’ve been taking classes ; ) this website will reach more people and add some balance to an internet biased towards ECT.

The website is almost finished. You can sneak a peak by following this link.

I just need to iron out some kinks and it should be good to go in the next few months! Huzzah!

Stay tuned! XO, Jane

 

ECT Survivor Project: Things I never consented to…

The world needs to know how people are lied to about ECT risks, are subsequently injured and left to fend for themselves!

I’m working on a survivor collaboration video about the side effects we never consented to when we had ECT. This video explains what’s involved if you would like to participate. Let me know if you have any questions or suggestions  

https://goo.gl/forms/2BJfXQRpOfwhrPaJ2

Was Carrie Fisher’s Death ECT Related?

2016 sucked royally. The year started off with the FDA trying to down-classify shock machines to class II when they thought no one was looking.

Then the horrible presidential election ending with Donald Trump as the victor.

The human rights abomination known as the Murphy bill was enthusiastically passed.

Beloved celebrities like Alan Rickman, Gene Wilder, and Prince have passed away,   followed by the Star Wars icon, Carrie Fisher, who died this week after suffering a heart attack.

I have mixed feelings about The world famous actress. I’m not a Star Wars fan so I don’t have a rabid fanaticism for her or other cast members.

As a shock survivor, I empathize with her desperation to control her depression that led to drugs and then ECT.

‘I was getting medication that medication could not handle. It feels like my brain gets moored down in cement and it kind of blows that apart. You can move on from whatever feelings you cannot resolve through therapy and medications.’

-Carrie Fisher, Oprah interview via Daily Mail.com

I can relate to her promotion of it because I felt strongly about it too. That is before I fully understood ECT and its horrific effects outside of my adolescent, psychiatric brainwashing.

I sounded very much like she did when she spoke to Oprah about it. How it was different now. Safer. Helpful.

In interviews, her cognitive impairments are quite obvious though she doesn’t seem to be aware of them which is heartbreaking.

She was duped like the rest of us.

At the same time, I have been exasperated by her ECT promotion. Her massive fame put her in a highly influential position. For those of us trying to educate people the true nature of electroshock and advocate for recognition, protection, and rehabilitation for those injured and cast aside by their doctors and society, she caused problems, though unintentionally. Ultimately, she was a victim and an unwitting pawn in a larger game.

Despite the damage her shock promotion caused, I never wished her any harm.

Her sudden death scares me, which brings me to an issue that has less to do with Carrie and more to do with the risks of ECT.

Risks and death rates are drastically downplayed in consent forms and the media. What most people don’t know is that there has been great efforts to prevent or hinder data collection on ECT-related deaths.

“Furthermore, the APA consent form drastically underestimates mortality associated with ECT by stating a risk of 1 in 10,000, whereas the average of numerous studies indicated a tenfold higher rate of death than suggested by the APA.”

Dr. Daniel Fisher presented to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Neurological Devices Panel examining the reclassification of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) devices on January 27, 2011.

Texas was one state who requires deaths to be reported after up to 12 days following ECT. What do results look like with this lengthier follow-up?

More ECT-related deaths. Much more dramatic numbers than the excessively conservative 1- 10,000 in consent forms!

Depending on the age group, it can be as few as  1-200!

This is just a sample of a near two-week time frame. Who knows how many other deaths could be attributed months or years later?

Heart attacks are one of the many ECT-related death causes.

I recently learned that acquaintance’s dad was subjected to ECT and died in his 50’s from a heart attack that was attributed to the shock treatments he had years before.

I want to briefly focus on Carrie Fisher’s Oprah interview where she talked about how ECT is different from old electroshock because they put you under anesthesia.

“They put you to sleep and give you a medication so there is no convulsions …”

~Carrie Fisher, Oprah Inteview

Rather than get into a lengthy explanation about the problems with that common statement of how modified ECT is better, (it’s not, read Dr. Peter Sterling’s entire article linked below) I just want to point out one important fact that I never new before agreeing to ECT and I wonder if Carrie did either: the anesthesia and muscle relaxants offer zero protection for the massive blood pressure increase caused by electrocuting a person into a grand mal seizure. I recently read an in-depth piece about the effect of ECT by Doctor Peter Sterling, via ect.org. I encourage anyone to read the whole article, but below are the quotes relevant to the blood pressure issue:

“Accompanying the convulsion, there is a tremendous rise in blood pressure: changes in arterial pressure from 80mm Hg to 220mm Hg, or almost 200%, have been recorded (Plum, et al, 1968). This overall response resembles the “grand mal” seizure that occurs in epilepsy…

Thus, the later modifications of ECT can relieve the threat of cerebral anoxia, but not the threat of high pressure, bleeding, loss of blood-brain barrier, or edema

… In accomplishing such massive increases in blood flow, the automatic mechanisms that normally regulate cerebral blood flow are overwhelmed. For the duration of the seizure and for sometime following it, blood flow to the brain becomes like that of must other tissues in the body — proportional to the arterial pressure forcing the blood through the vessels. These changes accompanying ECT are not modified by the administration of anesthetic, paralytic drugs or oxygen (Plum, et al., 1968; Posner, et al., 1969).

~Dr. Peter Sterling, Ph.D., Testimony Prepared for the Standing Committee on Mental Health of the Assembly of the State of New York, October 5, 1978.

Looking at the physiologic effects of electroshock I have to wonder, was Carrie Fisher’s heart attack in part from her many medically induced seizures? What role did all the pharmaceuticals she took play in her death?

Even though I stopped ECT and drugs ten years ago, am I destined for the same fate in 30 years?

All I can think right now is #fuck2016 !

References

BBC. (2016, December 27). Carrie Fisher, Star Wars actress, dies aged 60 – BBC News. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/entertainment-arts-38446753?ocid=socialflow_facebook&ns_mchannel=social&ns_campaign=bbcnews&ns_source=facebook

Boodman, S. J. (1996, September 24). SHOCK THERAPY: IT’S BACK – The Washington Post. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/lifestyle/wellness/1996/09/24/shock-therapy-its-back/35a22683-a87d-4946-81a6-cabf1bb5a37b/?utm_term=.ed4a03e04218

Fisher, D. (2011, January 27). Dr. Daniel Fisher on ECT | Psych Central. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/dr-daniel-fisher-on-ect/

Frank, L. R.Retrieved from http://endofshock.com/101i%20brochure%20on%20deaths%203-29.pdf

Sterling, P. (1978, October 5). Brain Damage and Memory Loss From ECT. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/effects/testimony.html

Thompson, J. (2011, February). Carrie Fisher confesses to Oprah that she has regular electric shock therapy to help her battle depression | Daily Mail Online. Retrieved December 27, 2016, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-1357601/Carrie-Fisher-confesses-Oprah-regular-electric-shock-therapy-help-battle-depression.html

Tracy, A. B. (2016, December 12). UPDATE: CARRIE FISHER DEAD AT 60 – ANTIDEPRESSANTS PLUS ???: Carrie Fisher Suffers Massive Heart Attack on Airplane – INTERNATIONAL COALITION FOR DRUG AWARENESS. Retrieved December 28, 2016, from http://www.drugawareness.org/antidepressants-plus-carrie-fisher-suffers-massive-heart-attack-on-airplane/

Coping With ECT Brain Damage During the Holidays 

For all the shock survivors who struggle with exhaustion: you aren’t weak, lazy or delusional.
Your everyday struggles are real and have a cause, even if most people don’t recognize it.

Learn about neuro-fatigue

As this article demonstrates, invisible disabilities are just as real and can be as restricting as visible ones.

The holidays can be brutal for ECT survivors with noisy, crowded family events and expectations of normal, engaged, happy, behavior.

How I feel about these expectations

Please be gentle with yourself this Christmas and every day in between.

Give yourself time-outs when you need them. Limit time you spend at events according to your needs. Fake an important call or another event if you have to! (I’ve currently excused myself from three events already.)

Remember that you have been injured and have suffered terrible losses from a pseudoscientific procedure. You are doing the best you can with what you have.

Share the neuro-fatigue article with open minded loved ones so they can better understand your limitations and needs.

As for the not so open-minded people in your life who don’t respect your limits–they can go choke on a candy cane 😉

Happy (or at least tolerable) holidays 🙂

-Jane

ECT Survivor Speaks Out Against the Procedure

Doctor and ECT survivor Sue Cunliffe has been interviewed on various radio and video programs this year and has recently added another appearance.

Check out Sue Cunliffe’s other interview: BBC Hereford & Worcester – Elliott and Toni at Breakfast, A Herefordshire woman’s experience of electroconvulsive therapy, and Dean Ryan on referees

TRIGGER WARNINGS:

Footage of the modified ECT procedure, conscious man convulsing and side-effects discussion.

I was greeted with a traumatic surprise at this videos opening footage of a patient receiving ECT. The psychiatrist and aids in the video were the first to assure me of ECT’s safety before repeatedly damaging my brain.

My trauma aside, I was also surprised at the mention of the increased seizure threshold. Seizures are catastrophic events the body works hard to prevent so over time, shock doctors have to use more electricity to induce them. This was one of the many vital pieces of information I was never given and  I have only ever seen mentioned by people who speak against ECT. It is doubtful it is ever included in consent forms or discussed with patients or family members. If it is, it is most likely downplayed.

As for ECT journalism, If you’re not familiar with electroshock’s media history, it is almost always favorably biased to the point of being promotional. Anything other than glowing reports with a mumbled mention of a few bad outcomes are practically unheard of.

This video does repeat many of the same unoriginal, recycled ideas and statements from past ECT articles:

  1. One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest reference
  2. People believe ECT is barbaric
  3. ECT ‘worked’ for this person, but doctors don’t know why (Not true! See my video, Brain Damage Therapy)

That said, there is a refreshing aspect of this video and other media Sue Cunliffe has participated in–there’s less bias towards ECT and provides more time to critical views and negative experiences.

The journalist mentions the bizarre thought process that went into the creation of ECT and also interviewing John Read, Australian psychology professor, and writer, about psychiatry’s ‘new and improved ECT,’ claim. John had also written several important articles about the obscene use of  forced ECT in the Garth Daniels case this last year.

There was also a critical look at the  Royal College of Psychiatrists data on how many patients they claim are injured (1 in 10 versus more likely projections of 1 in 5).

My hope is that harder hitting, less biased news stories will become the norm and psychiatry will no longer get a free pass in the public arena.

 

 

Spot a typo? Tell me about it at aftershockrecovery (at) gmail (dot) com. Thank you 🙂

 

Cardiologist Sues His Psychiatrist for Millions After Receiving Brain Damaging Electroshock

Bob Kerrey (1).jpg

I’m impressed to see an ECT lawsuit make it to trial and receive so much media attention.

I think a major factor is Shaul Dadi has elevated social status as a doctor who only recently suffered severe emotional distress. It’s much harder to paint someone of his stature as a delusional, unstable nutjob who tries to blame his mental health issues on ‘imaginary brain damage’ — the standard method for discrediting shock survivors. Few of us have such an advantage.

That said, I’m grateful that some survivors have a shot at justice. Shaul Dadi’s losses are devastating. His wife’s losses are devastating. For their sake and the sake of countless shock survivors who will never have their day in court,  I hope the Dadi’s win this lawsuit.

Read the full article here.

News Coverage of Recent Failed ECT Lawsuit

TRIGGER WARNINGS: footage of pre-ECT prep, ECT facilities, and shock machines.

I came across more coverage of this recent ECT lawsuit. If you are unfamiliar, you can read up on it below:

 Cardiologist Sues His Psychiatrist for Millions After Receiving Brain Damaging Electroshock

Cardiologist Brain Damaged by ECT Denied Justice

The shock doctor’s claim that ECT is safe because they use anesthesia, oxygenation, and monitoring, is absurd.

Anesthesia may prevent broken bones and bitten off tongues, and look more humane, but ultimately, it makes ECT more dangerous.

First, it has its own set of risks. Anesthesia also adds to the hazards of ECT because it lowers the seizure threshold so more electricity is needed to induce a grand mal seizure.

Oxygenation is used because patients are given muscle paralyzers that impair a patient’s ability to breathe independently. It’s also used to fuel the seizures.

The whole reason the patient is there in the first place is to have 200-450 volts of electricity pulsed through his/her brain to cause a grand mal seizure; a violent medical event the doctors normally try to prevent. Monitoring doesn’t change that and in many cases doesn’t prevent injury or death,  permanent cognitive impairment, and memory loss.

This scenario looks quite different with reasons behind these “safety measures,” no?

As for this psychiatrist not seeing a single patient with post- ECT brain damage? You see what you look for and shock doctors don’t look. In this instance, this doctor has a patient reporting massive brain damage but that has no impact on his beliefs and perception about what he does and the effect his ‘treatment’ has on the brain.

No “Wow! The problems you’re are expressing sound like a traumatic brain injury. We did run enough electricity through your brain to power a light bulb. Let’s do some neuro testing to evaluate you and see what we can do to help rehabilitate you.”

He didn’t even consider it because he’s never “seen” brain damage from his handy work before.

And that is the stance most if not all shock doctors take when a patient reports damage. No offer for cognitive testing. No acknowledgment. No rehab. Blame the person’s mental illness and/or character and leave them to fend for themselves in a world where no one will believe their claims because doctors say: ECT doesn’t damage the brain.

Because he is a doctor, he has the implicit trust of society, he wasn’t questioned on his statement and the news station that made this blurb didn’t present any contrary information to the doctor or in their reporting. “It’s safe because we do XYZ”is all he has to say to be believed.

This miscarriage of justice was no doubt a terrible blow to the Dadi’s–it was certainly devastating for the shock survivor community. I hope this isn’t the last we hear about it.

Fingers crossed appeal efforts are heard.

 

Spot a typo? Tell me about at aftershockrecovery (at) gmail (dot) com. Thanks 🙂

Sources by topic

Long standing ECT brain damage evidence:

Breggin, P. R. (1979). Electro-shock its brain-disabling effects. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscience/Breggin_1979___AAA___Complete_ECT_Book___Overview__244_pages__Brain_Damage__Memory_Loss__Abuse__Etc_.pdf

Breggin, P. R. (2015, April 8). Simple Truth 10: Electroshock is Brain Trauma [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOtacCftvcs

Sakeim, H. (2007). The cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy in community settings. Retrieved November 28, 2016, from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscience/Sackeim_et_al__2007___AAA___Long-term_memory_and_cognitive_dysfunction_____Bilateral_worse_.pdf

ECT and the use of oxygen:

Andre, L. (2009). Doctors of deception: What they don’t want you to know about shock treatment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press

Psychiatry not looking for ECT-induced brain damage:

Andre, L. (1991, September). Electroshock as head injury. Retrieved July 22, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/effects/headinjury.html

Andre, L. (2009). Doctors of deception: What they don’t want you to know about shock treatment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press

Hickey, P. (2006, November 21). http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-effective/. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/electroconvulsive-therapy-ect-effective/

Janis, I. (1950). Psychological effects of electric shock treatment. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 3. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscience/Janis_1950__Autobiographical_memory_loss_.pdf

Warneron, R. (n.d.). http://akmhcweb.org/ncarticles/RichardWarneronShockTreatment.pdf. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://akmhcweb.org/ncarticles/RichardWarneronShockTreatment.pdf

Dangers of anesthesia

Storrs, C. (2014, April 1). The Hidden Dangers of Going Under – Scientific American. Retrieved November 28, 2016, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/hidden-dangers-of-going-under/

Seizure Threshold increased from anesthesia

Andre, L. (1991, September). Electroshock as head injury. Retrieved July 22, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/effects/headinjury.html

 

Powerful Anti-ECT Video

My talented friend over at Materialistic Psychiatry recently created a powerful and informative anti-ECT video.

TRIGGER WARNINGS: disturbing imagery, shock machine brochures, suicide references.

 

Cardiologist Brain Damaged by ECT Denied Justice

A few weeks back I wrote about Dadi, a former cardiologist who was suing his psychiatrist for millions of dollars in damages for severe cognitive impairment Dadi suffered after a series of  ECT treatments.

white capped text on dark grey background reads “I HAD A VERY GOOD MEMORY BEFORE. I PRACTICED MEDICINE. I HAD THOUSANDS OF PATIENTS. I LOST IT ALL,” HE SAID. “THE MEMORY LOSS. THE ISOLATION I FEEL BECAUSE OF MY INABILITY TO INTERACT WITH OTHERS. THE INABILITY TO DRIVE. I THINK THE PROCEDURE CAUSED BRAIN DAMAGE AND I FEEL IT. EVERY DAY. EVERY DAY.” Dr. Shaul Dadi

“Instead of respecting all these ‘No, no, no, no,’ [from Dadi]. . . Dr. Dadi, with no written consent, goes for electroshock therapy,' La Vista said, [And] it doesn’t matter that there’s no written consent, because the oral consent is no good, either.'"

After a twelve day trial and  nearly four hours of jury deliberation, a devastating verdict was delivered to Dadi and his wife.

The psychiatrist that damaged his brain was cleared of all charges. He will continue to shock away people’s intelligence, memories, and abilities. If they are fortunate enough to have the resources to their grievances to court, a jury of their peers is sure to f#$% things up and the world continues on in blissful ignorance about the true abuses and hazards of electroshock.

 Read the full story here.

The shock machine manufacturers and the psychiatric industry remain completely unscathed by all of this.

Dadi is not the first and will not be the last shock survivor to get screwed over by our legal system.

This is a state of shock survivor lawsuits.

 

(Revised Version) Brain Damage Therapy

If you saw the original incarnation of this video, you know all about the style and timing issues. I got help from the app designers and was able to fix all the little pesky quirks and also add a TON of polish to this video.

In two days this video got 84 views and several comments! This activity makes me hesitant to take it down.

While I figure out what to do with the old version, you can help me get the truth out about electroshock by viewing, liking and sharing the new one.

If you already have, thank you! I hope you will consider doing the same for the revised version as well.

Thank you!

 


Video References

References
Andre, L. (1991, September). Electroshock as head injury. Retrieved July 22, 2016, from http://www.ect.org/effects/headinjury…

Andre, L. (2009). Doctors of deception: What they don’t want you to know about shock treatment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Breggin, P. R. (1979). Electro-shock its brain-disabling effects. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

Breggin, P. R. (2010). The FDA should test the safety of ECT machines (International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 22 (2010) 89–92). Retrieved from http://breggin.com/wp-content/uploads…

Breggin, P. R. (2015, April 8). Simple Truth 10: Electroshock is Brain Trauma [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOtac…

Breggin, P. R. (n.d.). Electroshock: scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved March 24, 2016, from http://www.stopshrinks.org/reading_ro…

Corry, M. (2008, June 25). Barbaric age of electric shock ‘cure’ must vanish. Retrieved July 22, 2016, from http://www.irishtimes.com/opinion/bar…

Frank, L. R. (2006). http://psychiatrized.org/LeonardRoyFr…. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.endofshock.com/102C_ECT.PDF

Friedberg, J. (1976). Shock treatment is not good for your brain. San Francisco: Glide Publications.

Hartelius, H. (1952). cerebral changes following electrically induced convulsions. acta psychiactrica et neurologica scandinavica. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

Hickey, P. (2006, November 21). http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/e…. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://www.madinamerica.com/2013/11/e…

Janis, I. (1950). Psychological effects of electric shock treatment. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 3. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

Ross, C. (2006). http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…. Retrieved from http://www.ectresources.org/ECTscienc…

Warneron, R. (n.d.). http://akmhcweb.org/ncarticles/Richar…. Retrieved January 5, 2016, from http://akmhcweb.org/ncarticles/Richar…